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International Journal of Language Studies

A Quarterly Journal of Applied Linguistics

ISSN: 2157-4898 | eISSN: 2157-4901

Sherpa/RoMEO Color: Yellow


Editor: Mohammad A. Salmani Nodoushan

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Impact Factor (IF): NA

Five-Year Impact Factor: NA

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): NA

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): NA


This journal is peer reviewed and indexed in: ERA, LB, IBZ, LLBA & more

April 2009 - Volume 3 issue 2 - Pages 143-248

Marking 'manner' metadiscursively: Conceptualizing metadiscourse within the framework of cooperative principle

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 143-152 | Download PDF

Reza Abdi

Manoochehr Tavangar Rizi

Mansoor Tavakoli

Metadiscourse is generally considered as writing about writing or discourse about discourse. Some scholars isolate discourse and metadiscourse by characterizing them as primary and secondary, respectively. In contrast to this alien conception of discourse and metadiscourse, a unified base for the two looks more promising. In this paper, we follow a new model that combines the concepts of cooperative principle and metadiscourse marking in an attempt to map discourse and metadiscourse onto the same infrastructure. Through analyzing authentic examples of transitions, frame markers and code glosses taken from research articles from academic discourse community, it is claimed that these strategies are employed primarily to promote 'manner' of expression.


Task-based instruction vs. translation method in teaching vocabulary: The case of Iranian-secondary school students

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 153-176 | Download PDF

Abdolmajid Hayati

Maryam Mohammadi

The present research investigated the usefulness of task-based activities versus translation for incidental learning of vocabulary. For this purpose, forty Iranian EFL students whose vocabulary knowledge was within the same range were randomly assigned into two groups. In group A, the task group, participants performed two communicative tasks over a period of sixty minutes. In group B, the translation group, students were required to translate a text cooperatively. To assess the incidental gains of the participants, after performing the activities, three types of tests were administered to both groups. Results indicated that although both groups had almost the same performances in form recognition test, better results were obtained in meaning translation and multiple-choice tests of the translation class. Overall, the study revealed that in EFL context, using translation in a communicative framework enhances vocabulary learning at deeper levels of cognitive processing leading to deeper vocabulary gains for unknown words.


Anticipatory 'it' lexical bundles: A comparative study of student and published writing in applied linguistics

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 177-194 | Download PDF

Hassan Jalali

Abbass Eslami Rasekh

Manoochehr Tavangar Rizi

The study of those linguistic devices variously referred to as 'stance expressions' or 'metadiscourse elements' is one of the best means by which the relationship between the writer, the reader, and propositional meaning could be examined. This paper is investigating a particular structural group of lexical bundles as a metadiscourse element, those bundles starting with anticipatory it followed by is (as a main copula verb), a predicative adjective and finally ending with infinitival to or conjunctive that (e.g. it is important to, it is possible that). The use of this bundle is compared in three corpora of research articles, doctoral dissertations, and master theses, all in the discipline of applied linguistics with an aim to first explore possible generic variations and second to address possible differences andor similarities between published and students writing. Using Hewings and Hewings's functional typology of interpersonal roles of it clauses (2002), this group of bundles is shown to have three functions of hedging, marking attitude, and stressing emphasis. The major difference is found to be between students' genres and research articles with the former using fewer bundles than the latter. The differences are accounted for by referring to generic expectations, and students' growing disciplinary identity. There are also some implications for academic writing.


Analytic assessment of writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 195-208 | Download PDF

Touran Ahour

Jayakaran Mukundan

The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of each writing component to the variance of overall writing performance. Writing samples were collected from 128 students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language at Universiti Putra Malaysia. The analytic scoring scale of Weir (1990) was employed by two independent raters for rating the writing samples on two comparable prompts. The stepwise regression analysis indicated the high contribution of Grammar to the variance of total writing scores followed by cohesion, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and content respectively. It is found that component of Organization had the lowest amount of contribution to the overall writing variance. The result reflected the weakness of the students basically in the components of Grammar and Cohesion. The findings reveal the positive impact of analytical scoring scales in instructional situations in terms of diagnosing areas of students’ weaknesses and strengths in writing.


Subject-Object switching in Ìgbò verbs: A revisit

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 209-224 | Download PDF

Maduabuchi Agbo

Subject-Object switching is of special and limited occurrence in Igbo syntax. In this aspect of Igbo syntax, the subject and object of a verb can freely exchange positions in the sentence structure without a change in the meaning of the sentence. Uwalaka (1988) in her seminal work on this phenomenon asserts that only a select few of Igbo verbs tolerate subject-object switching. It is claimed in Uwalaka (1988) that only Experiential and Process verbs allow subject-object switching in the sentence. In this study, we have provided evidence to show that Action verbs in Igbo also allow the phenomenon of subject-object switching. In Uwalaka (1988) it is suggested that the grammatical subjects of verbs tolerating subject-object switching take animate features. Our data shows that some verbs tolerating subject-object switching can take inanimate grammatical subjects. The Case roles Experiencer and Patient are assigned to the grammatical subjects of ‘subject-object’ switching verbs. We claim in this paper that the Agent Case role can be assigned to the Action verbs allowing ‘subject-object’ switching.


Code-switching as a new strategy: Speak English to overcome your shyness

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 225-234 | Download PDF

Abbas Eslami Rasekh

Nematullah Shomoossi

Masoud Soleimani

Why L2 learners rarely initiate discussions, avoid raising new topics, do not challenge the teacher, ask fewer questions, and are reluctant to volunteer could be attributed to many factors. However, one possible reason could be their shyness as a social dysfunction. Code switching, which has been investigated widely in second language learning and bilingualism, is rarely scrutinized in relation to this psychological barrier, i.e. shyness. This article intends to focus on code switching as a strategy used by some English learners to express words that cannot be easily uttered via their first language (Persian in Iran), just because of shyness. Also, it aims to highlight English teachers' awareness of teaching English as an effective tool for students to overcome their possible shyness. Forty English graduate students, forty English undergraduate students at the University of Isfahan, Iran, and twenty English conversation teachers working in two language centers in Isfahan participated in this study. A questionnaire consisting of six different short scenarios was used to elicit the participants' responses. The percentage of code-switching from Persian to English differed across different situations. Data analysis revealed that the participants were more willing to use English for uttering non-conventional words, asking for a favor and expressing romantic words. This study pedagogically establishes that ability to use English words in an EFL environment can be a suitable tool for students to overcome their shyness in certain occasions.


The Use of Layout in Malay Language Newspapers' Front Pages

Volume 3 issue 2 - April 2009 - pp. 235-248 | Download PDF

Kumaran Rajandran

This paper deals with the use of layout in Malay Language Newspapers’ (MLN) front pages. It examines front pages as they are the face of MLN and are commonly seen by readers. Layout concerns the placement of elements in space that consists of framing, salience and information value. This paper posits two questions: How is layout used in MLN front pages? How do image and language interact via layout? These questions are answered using front pages from MLN in Malaysia and Indonesia. MLN front pages might seem aesthetic or haphazard to some but layout tries to make sense of them systematically. Layout recognizes that image and language elements placed in different parts of front pages gives them different values and hence different meanings. This also influences the roles of image and language in front pages and their inter-relations. These elements are not simply placed in front pages as designers have to exploit the space they have to create front pages that are cohesive and coherent. It is ultimately seen that layout helps make sense of MLN front pages. Its dynamic nature is seen that is also responsive to MLN genre and social practice.